How to Install and Configure WordPress on CentOS 7

Introduction

WordPress is a free and open source blogging platform or content management system based on PHP and MySQL. Currently WordPress is the most popular CMS all over the world, and has 20000 plus plugins to extend its functionality.You can easily create a simple website, blog or complex portals and enterprise websites using WordPress.

WordPress provides lots of features. Some of them are listed below:

  • WordPress is available in more than 70 languages. So you can build a website in a language as your choice.
  • You can easily manage your content, schedule, look and publication using WordPress, and also secure your posts and content with a password.
  • WordPress comes with thousands of themes for you to create a beautiful website. You can also upload your own theme with the click of a button.
  • With the importers feature you can easily import your blog from another website to WordPress.
  • WordPress provides search engine optimization out of the box, and also provides many SEO plugins.

In this tutorial, we will discuss how to install and configure WordPress on a CentOS 7 server.

Requirements

  • A server running CentOS 7.
  • A non-root user with sudo privilege setup on your server.

Getting Started

Update your system with the latest package versions by running the following command:

sudo yum update -y

Once your system is up-to-date, you can proceed to the next step.

Installing LAMP

Before installing WordPress itself, you will need to install the LAMP stack and other required packages on your server.

You can install all the necessary packages with the following command:

sudo yum install httpd mariadb mariadb-server php php-common php-mysql php-gd php-xml php-mbstring php-mcrypt php-xmlrpc unzip wget -y

Once installation is complete, start the Apache and MariaDB services and enable them to start at boot with the following commands:

sudo systemctl start httpd
sudo systemctl start mariadb
sudo systemctl enable httpd
sudo systemctl enable mariadb

Configuring MariaDB for WordPress

By default MariaDB is not secured, so you will need to secure it first. You can do this by running mysql_secure_installation script:

sudo mysql_secure_installation

Answer all the questions as shown below:

Set root password? [Y/n] n
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y

Once you have finished, login to MariaDB console with the following command:

mysql -u root -p

Enter your MariaDB root password and hit Enter. After login, create a database for WordPress:

MariaDB [(none)]>CREATE DATABASE wordpress;
MariaDB [(none)]>GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES on wordpress.* to 'user'@'localhost' identified by 'password';
MariaDB [(none)]>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
MariaDB [(none)]>exit

Installing and Configuring WordPress

You can download the latest version of the WordPress source from the official website. You can get the latest version of WordPress by running the following command:

wget http://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

Once download is finished, extract the downloaded file with the following command:

tar -xzvf latest.tar.gz

Next, move the extracted files to the Apache web root directory:

sudo cp -avr wordpress/* /var/www/html/
restorecon -r /var/www/html

Next, create a directory for WordPress to store uploaded files:

sudo mkdir /var/www/html/wp-content/uploads

Next, assign proper ownership and permissions to your WordPress files and folders:

sudo chown -R apache:apache /var/www/html/
sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www/html/

Next, you will need to make some changes in the WordPress main configuration file, so it can be connected with the database and user.

First, rename and edit the WordPress main configuration file:

cd /var/www/html/
sudo mv wp-config-sample.php wp-config.php
sudo nano wp-config.php

Change the DB_NAME, DB_USER, and DB_PASSWORD variables as shown below:

define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');
define('DB_USER', 'user');
define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Accessing WordPress Web Installation Wizard

Before starting, you will need to allow access to the Apache ports using firewalld.

You can do this by running the following command:

sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=http
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --zone=public --add-service=https
sudo firewall-cmd --reload

Next, open your web browser and type the URL http://your-server-ip. You should see the following page:

WordPress language selection

Select language as per your need and click on Continue button, you should see the following page:

WordPress site info page

Fill out all the required site information and click on Install WordPress button. You should see the WordPress default dashboard as below:

WordPress dashboard page

Once installation is completed, you can login WordPress by typing the URL http://your-server-ip/wp-login.php? on your web browser. You should see the WordPress login page as below:

WordPress login page

Next, provide username and the password which you have created earlier and click on Log In button, you should see the following page:

WordPress dashboard

Summary

Congratulations! You have successfully installed WordPress on CentOS 7. I hope you have now enough knowledge to host your own WordPress blog easily. Feel free to comment below if you have any questions.

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Nagios Core Upgrade on CentOS 7

We are going to upgrade Nagios Core from 4.1.1 to 4.4.2.

Backup Existing Nagios Configuration
Nagios and Apache services should be stopped:

systemctl stop nagios httpd

Make sure that we have a backup:

rsync -rav /usr/local/nagios/ /opt/nagios411backup/

Upgade and Configuration
Download Nagios Core release 4.3.4 and extract the archive:

wget https://assets.nagios.com/downloads/nagioscore/releases/nagios-4.4.2.tar.gz
tar xf ./nagios-4.4.2.tar.gz && cd ./nagios-4.4.2

Configure and compile:

./configure --with-command-group=nagcmd
make all

Install the main program, CGIs, HTML files, sample config files etc:

make install
make install-init
make install-commandmode
make install-config
make install-webconf
make install-webconfig

Restore the configuration file nagios.cfg from the backup:

cp -f /opt/nagios411backup/etc/nagios.cfg /usr/local/nagios/etc/

Restore the password file htpasswd.users if required:

cp -f /opt/nagios411backup/etc/htpasswd.users /usr/local/nagios/etc/

Restore objects:

rsync -rav /opt/nagios411backup/etc/objects/ /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/

In our case we also want to restore all custom monitoring configuration files:


rsync -rav /opt/nagios411backup/etc/monitoring/ /usr/local/nagios/etc/monitoring/

These are deprecated and will be removed in future versions, might as well change them now:

sed -i 's/normal_check_interval/check_interval/g' /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/templates.cfg
sed -i 's/normal_check_interval/check_interval/g' /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/printer.cfg
sed -i 's/normal_check_interval/check_interval/g' /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/switch.cfg
sed -i 's/retry_check_interval/retry_interval/g' /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/templates.cfg
sed -i 's/retry_check_interval/retry_interval/g' /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/printer.cfg
sed -i 's/retry_check_interval/retry_interval/g' /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/switch.cfg
sed -i 's/^command_check_interval/#command_check_intervald/g' /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

We use Nagiosgraph, therefore we need this to continue processing data (the config file which we restored from the backup does contain the line already, therefore it’s mainly for future references).

sed -i 's/process_performance_data=0/process_performance_data=1/g' /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

Reload and restart the services:

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart nagios
systemctl restart httpd

Verify:

/usr/local/nagios/bin/nagios -v /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

Nagios Core 4.4.2
Copyright (c) 2009-present Nagios Core Development Team and Community Contributors
Copyright (c) 1999-2009 Ethan Galstad
Last Modified: 2017-08-24
License: GPL

Website: https://www.nagios.org
Reading configuration data…
Read main config file okay…
Read object config files okay…

Running pre-flight check on configuration data…

Checking objects…
Checked 1671 services.
Checked 190 hosts.
Checked 44 host groups.
Checked 47 service groups.
Checked 5 contacts.
Checked 6 contact groups.
Checked 126 commands.
Checked 7 time periods.
Checked 0 host escalations.
Checked 0 service escalations.
Checking for circular paths…
Checked 190 hosts
Checked 0 service dependencies
Checked 0 host dependencies
Checked 7 timeperiods
Checking global event handlers…
Checking obsessive compulsive processor commands…
Checking misc settings…

Total Warnings: 0
Total Errors: 0

Things look okay – No serious problems were detected during the pre-flight check
If there are any configuration mismatches between the old and the new Nagios versions that affect your set up, then change them accordingly.

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How To Install Nagios 4 and Monitor Your Servers on CentOS 7

Introduction

In this tutorial, we will cover the installation of Nagios 4, a very popular open source monitoring system, on CentOS 7 or RHEL 7. We will cover some basic configuration, so you will be able to monitor host resources via the web interface. We will also utilize the Nagios Remote Plugin Executor (NRPE), that will be installed as an agent on remote hosts, to monitor their local resources.

Nagios is useful for keeping an inventory of your servers, and making sure your critical services are up and running. Using a monitoring system, like Nagios, is an essential tool for any production server environment.

Prerequisites

To follow this tutorial, you must have superuser privileges on the CentOS 7 server that will run Nagios. Ideally, you will be using a non-root user with superuser privileges.

A LAMP stack is also required. Follow this tutorial if you need to set that up: How To Install LAMP stack On CentOS 7.

This tutorial assumes that your server has private networking enabled. If it doesn’t, just replace all the references to private IP addresses with public IP addresses.

Now that we have the prerequisites sorted out, let’s move on to getting Nagios 4 installed.

Install Nagios 4

This section will cover how to install Nagios 4 on your monitoring server. You only need to complete this section once.

Install Build Dependencies

Because we are building Nagios Core from source, we must install a few development libraries that will allow us to complete the build.

First, install the required packages:

sudo yum install gcc glibc glibc-common gd gd-devel make net-snmp openssl-devel xinetd unzip

Create Nagios User and Group

We must create a user and group that will run the Nagios process. Create a “nagios” user and “nagcmd” group, then add the user to the group with these commands:

sudo useradd nagios
sudo groupadd nagcmd
sudo usermod -a -G nagcmd nagios

Let’s install Nagios now.

Install Nagios Core

Download the source code for the latest stable release of Nagios Core. Go to the Nagios downloads page, and click the Skip to download link below the form. Copy the link address for the latest stable release so you can download it to your Nagios server.

At the time of this writing, the latest stable release is Nagios 4.1.1. Download it to your home directory with curl:

cd ~
curl -L -O https://assets.nagios.com/downloads/nagioscore/releases/nagios-4.1.1.tar.gz

Extract the Nagios archive with this command:

tar xvf nagios-*.tar.gz

Then change to the extracted directory:

cd nagios-*

Before building Nagios, we must configure it with this command:

./configure --with-command-group=nagcmd 

Now compile Nagios with this command:

make all

Now we can run these make commands to install Nagios, init scripts, and sample configuration files:

sudo make install
sudo make install-commandmode
sudo make install-init
sudo make install-config
sudo make install-webconf

In order to issue external commands via the web interface to Nagios, we must add the web server user, apache, to the nagcmd group:

sudo usermod -G nagcmd apache

Install Nagios Plugins

Find the latest release of Nagios Plugins here: Nagios Plugins Download. Copy the link address for the latest version, and copy the link address so you can download it to your Nagios server.

At the time of this writing, the latest version is Nagios Plugins 2.1.1. Download it to your home directory with curl:

cd ~
curl -L -O http://nagios-plugins.org/download/nagios-plugins-2.1.1.tar.gz

Extract Nagios Plugins archive with this command:

tar xvf nagios-plugins-*.tar.gz

Then change to the extracted directory:

cd nagios-plugins-*

Before building Nagios Plugins, we must configure it. Use this command:

./configure --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios --with-openssl

Now compile Nagios Plugins with this command:

make

Then install it with this command:

sudo make install

Install NRPE

Find the source code for the latest stable release of NRPE at the NRPE downloads page. Download the latest version to your Nagios server.

At the time of this writing, the latest release is 2.15. Download it to your home directory with curl:

cd ~
curl -L -O http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/nagios/nrpe-2.x/nrpe-2.15/nrpe-2.15.tar.gz

Extract the NRPE archive with this command:

tar xvf nrpe-*.tar.gz

Then change to the extracted directory:

cd nrpe-*

Configure NRPE with these commands:

./configure --enable-command-args --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios --with-ssl=/usr/bin/openssl --with-ssl-lib=/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu

Now build and install NRPE and its xinetd startup script with these commands:

make all
sudo make install
sudo make install-xinetd
sudo make install-daemon-config

Open the xinetd startup script in an editor:

sudo vi /etc/xinetd.d/nrpe

Modify the only_from line by adding the private IP address of the your Nagios server to the end (substitute in the actual IP address of your server):

only_from = 127.0.0.1 10.132.224.168

Save and exit. Only the Nagios server will be allowed to communicate with NRPE.

Restart the xinetd service to start NRPE:

sudo service xinetd restart

Now that Nagios 4 is installed, we need to configure it.

Configure Nagios

Now let’s perform the initial Nagios configuration. You only need to perform this section once, on your Nagios server.

Organize Nagios Configuration

Open the main Nagios configuration file in your favorite text editor. We’ll use vi to edit the file:

sudo vi /usr/local/nagios/etc/nagios.cfg

Now find an uncomment this line by deleting the #:

#cfg_dir=/usr/local/nagios/etc/servers

Save and exit.

Now create the directory that will store the configuration file for each server that you will monitor:

sudo mkdir /usr/local/nagios/etc/servers

Configure Nagios Contacts

Open the Nagios contacts configuration in your favorite text editor. We’ll use vi to edit the file:

sudo vi /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg

Find the email directive, and replace its value (the highlighted part) with your own email address:

email                           [email protected]        ; <<***** CHANGE THIS TO YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS ******

Save and exit.

Configure check_nrpe Command

Let's add a new command to our Nagios configuration:

sudo vi /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/commands.cfg

Add the following to the end of the file:

define command{
        command_name check_nrpe
        command_line $USER1$/check_nrpe -H $HOSTADDRESS$ -c $ARG1$
}

Save and exit. This allows you to use the check_nrpe command in your Nagios service definitions.

Configure Apache

Use htpasswd to create an admin user, called "nagiosadmin", that can access the Nagios web interface:

sudo htpasswd -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/htpasswd.users nagiosadmin

Enter a password at the prompt. Remember this login, as you will need it to access the Nagios web interface.

Note: If you create a user that is not named "nagiosadmin", you will need to edit /usr/local/nagios/etc/cgi.cfg and change all the "nagiosadmin" references to the user you created.

Nagios is ready to be started. Let's do that, and restart Apache:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl start nagios.service
sudo systemctl restart httpd.service

To enable Nagios to start on server boot, run this command:

sudo chkconfig nagios on

Optional: Restrict Access by IP Address

If you want to restrict the IP addresses that can access the Nagios web interface, you will want to edit the Apache configuration file:

sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/nagios.conf

Find and comment the following two lines by adding # symbols in front of them:

Order allow,deny
Allow from all

Then uncomment the following lines, by deleting the # symbols, and add the IP addresses or ranges (space delimited) that you want to allow to in the Allow from line:

#  Order deny,allow
# Deny from all
# Allow from 127.0.0.1

As these lines will appear twice in the configuration file, so you will need to perform these steps once more.

Save and exit.

Now start Nagios and restart Apache to put the change into effect:

sudo systemctl restart nagios.service
sudo systemctl restart httpd.service

Nagios is now running, so let's try and log in.

Accessing the Nagios Web Interface

Open your favorite web browser, and go to your Nagios server (substitute the IP address or hostname for the highlighted part):

http://nagios_server_public_ip/nagios

Because we configured Apache to use htpasswd, you must enter the login credentials that you created earlier. We used "nagiosadmin" as the username:

htaccess Authentication Prompt

After authenticating, you will be see the default Nagios home page. Click on the Hosts link, in the left navigation bar, to see which hosts Nagios is monitoring:

Nagios Hosts Page

As you can see, Nagios is monitoring only "localhost", or itself.

Let's monitor another host with Nagios!

Monitor a CentOS 7 Host with NRPE

In this section, we'll show you how to add a new host to Nagios, so it will be monitored. Repeat this section for each CentOS or RHEL server you wish to monitor.

Note: If you want to monitor an Ubuntu or Debian server, follow the instructions in this link: Monitor an Ubuntu Host with NRPE.

On a server that you want to monitor, install the EPEL repository:

sudo yum install epel-release

Now install Nagios Plugins and NRPE:

Now, let's update the NRPE configuration file. Open it in your favorite editor (we're using vi):

sudo yum install nrpe nagios-plugins-all
sudo vi /etc/nagios/nrpe.cfg

Find the allowed_hosts directive, and add the private IP address of your Nagios server to the comma-delimited list (substitute it in place of the highlighted example):

allowed_hosts=127.0.0.1,10.132.224.168

Save and exit. This configures NRPE to accept requests from your Nagios server, via its private IP address.

Restart NRPE to put the change into effect:

sudo systemctl start nrpe.service
sudo systemctl enable nrpe.service

Once you are done installing and configuring NRPE on the hosts that you want to monitor, you will have to add these hosts to your Nagios server configuration before it will start monitoring them.

Add Host to Nagios Configuration

On your Nagios server, create a new configuration file for each of the remote hosts that you want to monitor in /usr/local/nagios/etc/servers/. Replace the highlighted word, "yourhost", with the name of your host:

sudo vi /usr/local/nagios/etc/servers/yourhost.cfg

Add in the following host definition, replacing the host_name value with your remote hostname ("web-1" in the example), the alias value with a description of the host, and the address value with the private IP address of the remote host:

define host {
        use                             linux-server
        host_name                       yourhost
        alias                           My first Apache server
        address                         10.132.234.52
        max_check_attempts              5
        check_period                    24x7
        notification_interval           30
        notification_period             24x7
}

With the configuration file above, Nagios will only monitor if the host is up or down. If this is sufficient for you, save and exit then restart Nagios. If you want to monitor particular services, read on.

Add any of these service blocks for services you want to monitor. Note that the value of check_command determines what will be monitored, including status threshold values. Here are some examples that you can add to your host's configuration file:

Ping:

define service {
        use                             generic-service
        host_name                       yourhost
        service_description             PING
        check_command                   check_ping!100.0,20%!500.0,60%
}

SSH (notifications_enabled set to 0 disables notifications for a service):

define service {
        use                             generic-service
        host_name                       yourhost
        service_description             SSH
        check_command                   check_ssh
        notifications_enabled           0
}

If you're not sure what use generic-service means, it is simply inheriting the values of a service template called "generic-service" that is defined by default.

Now save and quit. Reload your Nagios configuration to put any changes into effect:

sudo systemctl reload nagios.service

Once you are done configuring Nagios to monitor all of your remote hosts, you should be set. Be sure to access your Nagios web interface, and check out the Services page to see all of your monitored hosts and services:

Nagios Services Page

Conclusion

Now that you monitoring your hosts and some of their services, you might want to spend some time to figure out which services are critical to you, so you can start monitoring those. You may also want to set up notifications so, for example, you receive an email when your disk utilization reaches a warning or critical threshold or your main website is down, so you can resolve the situation promptly or before a problem even occurs.

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Configure LAMP on Centos 7

Installing LAMP

To configure your Centos server with LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) and other required packages on your server.

You can install all the necessary packages with the following command:

sudo yum install httpd mariadb mariadb-server php php-common php-mysql php-gd php-xml php-mbstring php-mcrypt php-xmlrpc unzip wget -y

Once installation is complete, start the Apache and MariaDB services and enable them to start at boot with the following commands:

sudo systemctl start httpd
sudo systemctl start mariadb
sudo systemctl enable httpd
sudo systemctl enable mariadb

Configuring MariaDB for your application

By default MariaDB is not secured, so you will need to secure it first. You can do this by running mysql_secure_installation script:

sudo mysql_secure_installation

Answer all the questions as shown below:

Set root password? [Y/n] n
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y

Your Centos host is now ready for your application and is configured as a LAMP server

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